February 26, 2024


Equality opinion

Copyrights and U.S. Customs, Part 2

This article is the 2nd aspect of the 2nd installment in a multipart collection built to assistance suitable holders and importers far better fully grasp the prospects and obligations that connect to mental house rights (IPR) in the U.S. Customs regulatory natural environment. Aspect 1 of the 2nd installment discussed copyright infringement stages recognized by U.S. Customs and Border Protection and their attendant enforcement regimes. In Component 2, we comprehensive the copyrights-trade photo by speaking about enforcement reduction solutions and presenting best follow guidelines for each ideal holders and importers.

Enforcement Aid

Assuming the gravity of a copyright infringement does not increase to the stage of a criminal referral, the two remission and mitigation/cancelation aid is accessible. The authority for this relief is located at 19 USC 1618 and 19 CFR 171.

Treatments Pursuing Seizure

A copyright-based mostly seizure offers an importer with a decision of procedural pathways. These involve: (i) requesting administrative forfeiture proceedings (ii) filing a declare and value bond and requesting referral of the matter to the U.S. Division of Justice (for subsequent judicial motion) (iii) distributing an present in compromise to the port director (with an eye to reaching a settlement) and (iv) filing a petition for administrative relief with the fines, penalties, and forfeitures officer (FPFO) at the port of seizure. Petitions trying to find reduction from a seizure usually progress claims about the distinctive and non-infringing traits of the products, the attainment of appropriate holder consent, the availability of an exemption (not for personal get, general public domain, qualifying use, and so on.), and/or the controlling nature of an importer’s curiosity in the IPR. The FPFO’s aid conclusion will be taken with refence to the parameters established forth in CBP’s printed pointers and is not subject matter to administrative protest.

Mitigation/Cancelation of Penalties

Importers can find reduction from CBP-issued penalties by submitting a petition for their mitigation or cancelation. In examining such petitions, the FPFO will, steady with posted penalty pointers, appraise an importer’s prior violation record in relation to a range of mitigating and aggravating factors.

 Mitigating aspects involve:

  • Prior good record of the importer
  • Lack of importer experience
  • Proof of remarkable cooperation
  • Proof of remedial action

Aggravating things, by way of contrast, involve:

  • Felony conviction relating to the issue transaction
  • Repetitive violations of the very same import restriction concerned in the penalty
  • A number of violations inside of the exact same transaction
  • Circumstances suggesting an intentional importation opposite to law
  • Sample of importer disregard for its tasks underneath U.S. legislation and restrictions

Where reduction is granted below a petition for the mitigation of a penalty, FPFOs routinely call for importers to satisfy all charges incurred in link with a seizure (demurrage, storage, and many others.) and indicator off on a keep harmless arrangement. Penalty-concentrated petition conclusions are not, in their ultimate kind, subject matter to administrative protest.

Very best Apply Tips for Handling Copyrights in the U.S. Customs Regulatory Setting

There are numerous steps ideal holders and importers can consider to secure their mental property rights and stay away from undesirable scrutiny.

Proper Holders

The most critical measure accessible to suitable holders (exterior of registering with the USCO) is recording their IPR with CBP’s Intellectual Residence Rights Recordation procedure (IPRR). The procedure is easy, quick, and low-cost ($190 per copyright registration). The act of recording has the advantageous influence of putting CBP on alert for inbound products with infringing copyrights. It also serves as an successful indicates of making sure CBP has up-to-day place of speak to information and facts. This can be utilized to expeditiously converse with proper holders if/when imported goods is detained. In the event piratical copies are detected, recordation opens the doorway to enforcement choices not normally available to will work whose copyrights have not been recorded with CBP.

Correct holders can greatly enhance the protection CBP recordation presents by subsequently achieving out to subject functions officers at all logistically relevant U.S. ports of entry for the purpose of educating them on the distinguishing attributes of guarded will work. Sharing a product information and facts manual or supplying a product information webinar can, in this vein, allow CBP to superior watch imports and, if suitable, get action to avoid the entry of violative content.

At last, proper holders can optimize the security of their IPR by actively training oversight about both of those the digital and actual physical marketplaces in which their merchandise are generated and/or commercialized. If/when this kind of vigilance success in the detection of violative products, proper holders will therefore be effectively-positioned to deploy the administrative and/or judicial tools available for shutting down the infringement (as a result of, for instance, the submitting of an e-Allegation to CBP, the submission of an IPR theft report to the Nationwide Intellectual Property Legal rights Coordination Middle, the obtainment of a courtroom-ordered injunction, and so forth.).

The foregoing suitable holder-oriented very best copyright follow steps can be summarized as follows:

  • Sign up copyrights with the USCO
  • Record copyrights with CBP’s IPRR
  • Educate CBP industry functions officers at all logistically applicable U.S. ports of entry on the unique traits and characteristics of the protected and recorded operate
  • Proactively watch marketplaces in which the guarded function is developed and commercialized
  • Get timely administrative or judicial action from IPR violations


There are, alternatively, a number of actions importers can acquire to keep away from unwanted CBP or right holder scrutiny. For example, importers can, prior to partaking in an importation, clear the mental home rights related with the merchandise to be delivered by seeking, no cost of charge, CBP’s Intellectual Property Legal rights Look for program (IPRS). The realization of this step facilitates, on a pre-importation basis, the identification of formerly unfamiliar intellectual home rights that have been recorded for protecting functions with CBP, thus permitting importers to timely safe the consent of a right holder and, by extension, prevent downstream compliance complications.

Where by an importer obtains appropriate holder consent to import an otherwise protected get the job done, the risk of an inappropriate detention/seizure can be minimized by proactively providing advance notification of this actuality to CBP officials at all logistically applicable U.S. ports of entry. This action avoids potentially disruptive and high priced downstream surprises, builds belief concerning importers and CBP, and facilitates reputable trade.

The last best follow evaluate an importer can take to limit IPR-connected customs compliance danger will involve obtaining, also on a pre-importation foundation, penned assurances from international suppliers and producers that the goods they will export does not infringe the intellectual house legal rights of third events.

The foregoing importer-oriented very best copyright observe steps can be summarized as follows:

  • Distinct the intellectual assets legal rights associated with inbound items on CBP’s IPRS process
  • Secure all essential proper holder authorizations in advance of coming into goods
  • Offer CBP discipline operations officers with pre-importation see of the forthcoming entry of products for which the authorization of a right holder has been beforehand secured
  • Insert provisions into appropriate transaction documents (contract production agreements, for instance) forbidding piratical will work in goods manufactured overseas for subsequent importation into the United States


Navigating copyright issues in intercontinental trade can, as this blogpost highlights, be tricky and complicated. This is primarily the circumstance for little- and medium- sized entities that lack the legal spend resources of larger sized organizations. Knowing the principles and subsequent the finest follow guidelines laid out in this piece will go a very long way to making sure that right holders secure their challenging-attained intangible assets and importers prevent the hold off and expense that can be induced by non-compliance with the guidelines and polices that implement to IPR in the U.S. Customs regulatory atmosphere.